Wildfires devastate US West Coast

By Linda Rios, 12 September 2020

As with the criminal mishandling of COVID-19, the mass devastation wrought by the wildfires exposes the complete inability of capitalism to address any social problem.

Oregon governor declares state of emergency calling wildfires a “once-in-a-generation event”

University of Michigan grad students set to extend strike as opposition grows to the US back-to-school drive

By Genevieve Leigh, 12 September 2020

Nineteen of the 25 hottest outbreaks in the US are in communities with colleges that have reopened for in-person learning, sparking growing anger over the homicidal back-to-school campaign.

University of Michigan strikers speak out: “We need to resist going back to normal. Normal no longer exists”

By our reporters, 12 September 2020

The strike is quickly turning into a focal point of a much broader opposition to the reckless reopening of both K-12 schools and college campuses everywhere.

University of Michigan graduate students take a stand for life against profit

Revelation of US government conspiracy on COVID-19 exposes EU herd immunity policy

By Alex Lantier, 12 September 2020

Revelations that US officials conspired to lie to the public about the severity of the coronavirus pandemic also expose the politically criminal role of the EU.

Latin America, epicenter of COVID-19 pandemic, on the brink of social explosion

By Tomas Castanheira, 12 September 2020

Latin America this week reached the grim milestones of 300,000 COVID-19 deaths and more than 8 million infections.

As Congress rejects renewal of unemployment benefits
US jobless claims top 884,000 for second week in a row

By Jacob Crosse, 12 September 2020

With no congressional relief in sight, millions of workers are seeing meager unemployment benefits expire while layoffs continue to mount.

As Trump incites police, fascist attacks on social protests
Biden pledges to keep troops in the Middle East and maintain record military spending

By Barry Grey, 12 September 2020

Since Labor Day, Biden has focused on appeals for support from the military and national security establishment, along with economic nationalist demagogy and pledges to prosecute “violent” left-wing protesters.

Speaking before auto union bureaucrats in Michigan, Biden makes nationalist appeal

“I don’t want to be a typhoid Mary!”
Jacksonville, Florida teacher speaks out against deadly school reopenings

By Nancy Hanover and Matthew MacEgan, 12 September 2020

A teacher in Jacksonville, Florida, reached out to the WSWS to speak about the spread of the coronavirus across the state just two weeks into the new school year.

New York City educators launch safety committee to halt the reopening of schools

Infected students denounce administration guidelines, amidst rising COVID-19 cases at Southern California universities

By Melody Isley and Emiri Ochiai, 12 September 2020

Infected students report callous treatment from school administration, being thrown into isolation rooms without bed sheets, food or sanitizing equipment.

Why did so many poor New Yorkers die of COVID-19?

By Josh Varlin, 12 September 2020

Inequality, including in-hospital care, determined whether thousands of people in New York City would die of COVID-19.

Mexico runs out of death certificates with 122,765 “excess deaths” reported during pandemic

By Norissa Santa Cruz and Carlos Reed, 12 September 2020

The Mexican President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador has done nothing to prevent the virus from claiming the lives of tens of thousands, most of them poor workers.

Hundreds of new COVID-19 cases raise fears of uncontrolled outbreaks across the Pacific

By John Braddock, 12 September 2020

The surge in cases across the Pacific is causing a deepening health and social crisis, underscoring the global reach of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Full classes, full buses—German schools are becoming a coronavirus trap

By Marianne Arens, 12 September 2020

With schools re-opening without social distancing and the wearing of masks, new infections are increasing. Throughout Germany, hundreds of facilities have been affected.

India-China border conflict remains on knife’s edge

By Jordan Shilton and Keith Jones, 12 September 2020

US support for India and efforts by major European powers to boost their military-strategic presence in the Indo-Pacific could cascade the border crisis into a catastrophic war.

Australian raids on Chinese journalists mark escalation of US-led witch hunt

By Mike Head, 12 September 2020

The timeline of this affair points to an intensifying anti-China propaganda campaign, instigated by Washington and the intelligence apparatus.

Constitutional amendment aims to provide Sri Lankan president with authoritarian powers

By Sanjaya Jayasekera and Deepal Jayasekera, 12 September 2020

Like his political counterparts around the world, Rajapakse’s preparations for dictatorial rule are being made in order to unleash a massive social assault on the working class.

Mauritian cruise ship crews strike to demand repatriation

By Tom Casey, 12 September 2020

Mediterranean Shipping Company crews have been stranded on three ships near Santos port, Brazil since the industry’s COVID-19 shutdown in late March.

State University of New York scapegoats students for COVID outbreaks, prepares repressive measures

By Alex Findijs, 12 September 2020

Refusing to take any responsibility for this catastrophe, the SUNY system is punishing groups of students for gathering and laying the ground for further police repression on campuses.

Brexit crisis intensifies after Johnson government tears up agreement with Brussels

By Robert Stevens, 12 September 2020

Brexit epitomises the malignant growth of inter-imperialist antagonisms that are plunging the world into a brutal trade war and exacerbating the threat of military conflict.

UK Tories use Extinction Rebellion protests to argue for savage political repression

By Richard Tyler, 12 September 2020

Prime Minister Boris Johnson has asked officials to take a “fresh look” at the legal status of Extinction Rebellion and see if it can be classified as an “organised crime group.”

UK government’s “Operation Moonshot”—a trojan horse for herd immunity policy

By Thomas Scripps, 12 September 2020

Under the cover of a non-existent mass testing programme, the government plans to encourage as much intermingling as possible.

Thousands sleeping rough after the burning down of Moria refugee camp on Lesbos

By John Vassilopoulos, 12 September 2020

Shocking footage and pictures show refugees of all ages sleeping on roads and hillsides, surrounded by their meagre possessions.

UK Conservative government votes down Grenfell Tower safety recommendations as inquiry resumes

By Charles Hixson, 12 September 2020

The inquiry’s toothless “suggestions”—that tower block tenants be granted a few minimal safety rights—have been tossed into the bin by the Tories.

Russia holds regional elections amidst growing political crisis

By Andrea Peters, 12 September 2020

Balloting in 83 regions ends Sunday, and Kremlin-backed candidates are facing challengers in a number of areas.

Trade unions confer with big business Liberals on how to revive Canadian capitalism

By Roger Jordan, 12 September 2020

The government’s real agenda is for a rapid return to work, higher corporate profitability and “competitiveness,” and to advance Canadian imperialism’s predatory interests internationally.

Amazon uses former government agents to spy on workers

By Shuvu Batta, 12 September 2020

A number of recent exposures confirm that Amazon has established its own secret internal intelligence agency to spy on its workforce.

11 September 2020

Eyewitness testimony: Death of Portland protester Michael Reinoehl was targeted assassination

By Patrick Martin, 11 September 2020

The killing of Michael Reinoehl: A state murder

State University of New York scapegoats students for COVID outbreaks, prepares repressive measures

By Alex Findijs, 11 September 2020

The human cost of school reopenings: Six teachers dead in the US in the past month

By Renae Cassimeda, 11 September 2020

Over 10,500 Florida children test positive for COVID-19 after schools reopen

By Matthew MacEgan, 11 September 2020

More on the back to school drive »

“Practically all children, one way or another, will be infected”
Spanish government demands schools reopen as COVID-19 deaths surge

By Alice Summers, 11 September 2020

Colombian security forces massacre 10 youth protesting police murder

By Andrea Lobo, 11 September 2020

Ten percent of Oregon’s population ordered to evacuate as wildfires continue to ravage the US west coast

By David Fitzgerald, 11 September 2020

US universities emerge as battlegrounds as students and faculty fight back against reckless reopening plans

By Genevieve Leigh, 11 September 2020

University of Michigan graduate student strike wins wide support

By Sheila Brehm, 11 September 2020

University of Iowa students and staff respond to one-day sickout

By Brian Brown and Andy Thompson, 11 September 2020

University of California, San Diego students, staff and faculty issue open letter opposing reckless reopening plan

By Peter Ross, 11 September 2020

Turkish government prepares to reopen schools as pandemic escalates

By Barış Demir, 11 September 2020

Iraqi health care workers threaten nationwide strike to demand resources to fight pandemic

By Jean Shaoul, 11 September 2020

Attorney General William Barr boosts Trump campaign for police repression

By Kristina Betinis, 11 September 2020

Federal prosecutors request halt to “Jane Doe” civil lawsuit against Ghislaine Maxwell and Epstein estate

By Kevin Reed, 11 September 2020

Hong Kong police carry out mass arrest of protesters

By Ben McGrath, 11 September 2020

India’s Supreme Court punishes prominent lawyer for criticizing its role in assault on democratic rights

By Kranti Kumara, 11 September 2020

Solomon Islands’ renegade province threatens separatist split over China diplomatic recognition

By Patrick O’Connor, 11 September 2020

Unions enforce pro-business restructure at Australia Post

By Jim Franklin and Oscar Grenfell, 11 September 2020

New in Portuguese

América Latina, no epicentro da pandemia de COVID-19, à beira da explosão social

Tomas Castanheira, 12 setembro 2020

A América Latina atingiu nesta semana o sinistro marco de 300.000 mortes por COVID-19 e 8 milhões de casos.

New in Russian

Показания очевидца: Смерть Майкла Рейноля, протестующего из Портленда, была преднамеренным убийством

Патрик Мартин, 12 сентября 2020 г.

Разыскиваемый за убийство фашистского линчевателя в Портленде Рейноль шел к своей машине, когда четверо полицейских без предупреждения открыли по нему огонь, изрешетив его пулями.

Эта неделя в истории
25 лет назад: International Workers Bulletin впервые доступен в интернете

12 сентября 2020 г.

11 сентября 1995 года газета International Workers Bulletin, американский предшественник Мирового Социалистического Веб Сайта, впервые стала полностью доступна в Интернете.

Эта неделя в истории
100 лет назад: Основана Коммунистическая партия Турции

12 сентября 2020 г.

10 сентября 1920 года в Баку, столице недавно созданного Советского Азербайджана, была основана Коммунистическая партия Турции в качестве турецкой секции Коммунистического Интернационала.

New in French

La conspiration autour du coronavirus: que savaient-ils et quand l'ont-ils su?

Andre Damon, 12 septembre 2020

Si Trump est le premier responsable américain à admettre avoir délibérément menti à la population américaine sur les dangers que représente la pandémie, il n’a pas agi seul.

Témoignage d’un témoin oculaire: le manifestant de Portland, Michael Reinoehl, a été exécuté par la police

Patrick Martin, 12 septembre 2020

Recherché pour le meurtre d’un justicier fasciste à Portland, Oregon, Reinoehl marchait vers sa voiture lorsque quatre policiers ont ouvert le feu sur lui sans prévenir, le criblant de balles.

La dernière année de Trotsky
Cinquième partie

David North, 12 septembre 2020

Une évaluation, à l'occasion du quatre-vingtième anniversaire de l'assassinat de Trotsky, des travaux du grand théoricien et stratège de la Révolution socialiste mondiale durant la dernière année de sa vie.

«Pratiquement tous les enfants, d'une manière ou d'une autre, seront infectés»
Le gouvernement espagnol exige la réouverture des écoles alors que les décès liés au COVID-19 augmentent

Alice Summers, 12 septembre 2020

Le gouvernement PSOE-Podemos met en oeuvre consciemment une politique dangereuse et criminelle qui aboutira à une explosion de cas et beaucoup de décès inutiles.

Assange ciblé pour ses opinions politiques dans une «menace terrifiante pour le Premier amendement», selon des témoins experts

Laura Tiernan et Thomas Scripps, 12 septembre 2020

Les révélations faites par WikiLeaks sur les victimes civiles en Irak et en Afghanistan avait joué «probablement le rôle le plus important» en catalysant l’opposition publique à ces deux guerres.

New in Spanish

La conspiración de coronavirus: ¿qué sabían y desde cuándo?

Andre Damon, 12 septiembre 2020

Mientras que Trump es el primer oficial estadounidense en admitir que le mintió deliberadamente a la población estadounidense sobre los peligros presentados por la pandemia, no actuó solo.

El último año de Trotsky
Sexta parte

David North, 12 septiembre 2020

Una valoración, con motivo del ochenta aniversario del asesinato de Trotsky, de la obra del gran teórico y estratega de la Revolución Socialista Mundial durante el último año de su vida.

Testimonio de testigo: la muerte del manifestante de Portland Michael Reinoehl fue un asesinato selectivo

Patrick Martin, 12 septiembre 2020

Buscado por el tiroteo de un vigilante fascista en Portland, Oregón, Reinoehl caminaba hacia su coche cuando cuatro policías abrieron fuego contra él sin avisar, acribillándolo a balazos.

Más de 10.500 niños de Florida salen positivo al COVID-19 tras reapertura escolar

Matthew McEgan, 12 septiembre 2020

Los casos de COVID-19 entre los niños de edad escolar en Florida han aumentado 34 por ciento desde que las escuelas reabrieron el 10 de agosto.

Fuerzas de seguridad colombianas masacran a 10 jóvenes que protestaban asesinato policial

Andrea Lobo, 12 septiembre 2020

La masacre en Bogotá refleja la disposición de la élite gobernante colombiana a recurrir a un gobierno autoritario para aplastar la oposición social en medio de una pandemia descontrolada.

Riqueza del CEO de Amazon Jeff Bezos sobrepasa los $200 mil millones

Tom Carter, 12 septiembre 2020

Según el Índice de milmillonarios de Bloomberg, las 500 personas más ricas del mundo han acumulado 809.000 millones de dólares adicionales en lo que va de año, aumentando su riqueza total en alrededor de un 14 por ciento.

Las perturbaciones humanas de las zonas silvestres aumentan la probabilidad de futuras pandemias

Philip Guelpa, 12 septiembre 2020

La deforestación y otras incursiones humanas en zonas silvestres disminuyen la biodiversidad y promueven el crecimiento de especies que son reservorios de posibles enfermedades zoonóticas.

New in German

Die Coronavirus-Verschwörung: Was wussten die US-Regierung, der Kongress und die Medien, und wann?

Andre Damon, 12. September 2020

Zwar gibt Trump zu, dass er die Öffentlichkeit gezielt belogen und seine kriminelle Politik unterdessen fast 200.000 Menschen das Leben gekostet hat. Es ist jedoch klar, dass er nicht allein gehandelt hat.

Linkspartei auf Regierungs- und Kriegskurs

Johannes Stern, 12. September 2020

Nachdem sich der Fraktionsvorsitzende Dietmar Bartsch im August offen hinter die Nato und die Auslandseinsätze der Bundeswehr gestellt hat, legt nun auch der außenpolitische Sprecher und Gründervater der Linkspartei Gregor Gysi nach.

Neue Enthüllungen über rechtsextreme Terrornetzwerke in der Polizei

Gregor Link, 12. September 2020

Nicht nur die hessische Polizei ist in die Erstellung von „NSU 2.0“-Drohschreiben verstrickt. Kürzlich wurden vier Polizeibeamte aus Hamburg und Berlin als Verdächtige vernommen.

„Praktisch alle Kinder werden sich in irgendeiner Form infizieren“
Spanische Regierung fordert Schulöffnung trotz steigender Covid-19-Todesfälle

Alice Summers, 12. September 2020

Die Regierung aus PSOE und Podemos setzt eine Politik durch, die zu einer Explosion der Fallzahlen und unzähligen, vermeidbaren Todesopfern führen wird.

New in Turkish

Küresel koronavirüs ölüm tahminleri, sürü bağışıklığı politikasının fütursuzca uygulandığını gösteriyor

Benjamin Mateus, 10 Eylül 2020

Günlük ölümlerin 1 Ekim’den sonra tırmanmaya başlaması ve 1 Kasım’dan sonra sert biçimde yükselmesi bekleniyor.

100 yıl önce: Türkiye Komünist Partisi kuruldu

10 Eylül 2020

Türkiye Komünist Partisi (TKP), 10 Eylül 1920’de, kısa süre önce kurulan Sovyet Azerbaycan’ın başkenti Bakü’de, Komünist Enternasyonal’in Türkiye şubesi olarak kuruldu.

Other Languages

Perspective

As pandemic death toll approaches 200,000, American oligarchs celebrate their wealth

12 September 2020

According to Forbes’ list of the 400 wealthiest Americans, the super-rich now possess $3.2 trillion, enough to pay for an entire year of public education, health care, nutrition and disaster relief for millions of people.

Earlier Perspectives »

ICFI

No to a Greek-Turkish war in the eastern Mediterranean!

International Committee of the Fourth International, 12 September 2020

Amid the escalation of threats and naval maneuvers between Turkey and Greece, backed by France, Europe and the Middle East are teetering on the brink of war.

Featured Commentary

The coronavirus conspiracy: What did they know, and when did they know it?

By Andre Damon, 11 September 2020

The plot against America and the world: How the US government and the media suppressed the truth about the COVID-19 pandemic

By Bryan Dyne and Andre Damon, 10 September 2020

The Civil War Election

Statement of the Socialist Equality Party (US) Political Committee, 9 September 2020

80 Years Since the Assassination of Leon Trotsky

Trotsky’s Last Year
Part six

By David North, 8 September 2020

An appraisal, on the occasion of the eightieth anniversary of Trotsky’s assassination, of the work of the great theoretician and strategist of World Socialist Revolution during the final year of his life.

Part One | Part Two | Part Three | Part Four | Part Five

The Persecution of Julian Assange

US attempting to block Spanish investigation into CIA spying on Assange

By Oscar Grenfell, 12 September 2020

The US authorities are seeking to prevent judicial confirmation that their pursuit of Assange has included illegal spying, and gross violations of attorney-client privilege.

Assange hearing adjourned as prosecution lawyer is tested for COVID-19

By Thomas Scripps, 11 September 2020

The working class must demand an end to the show trial of Julian Assange

By Thomas Scripps, 8 September 2020

More on the campaign to defend Julian Assange »

Commentary

CPP founder Sison regurgitates Stalinist lies about Trotskyism

By Peter Symonds, 12 September 2020

Sison’s second interview, defending his politically bankrupt “semi-colonial, semi-feudal” thesis, is a desperate bid to stem the haemorrhaging of support for the Communist Party of the Philippines, and to suppress any questioning in its ranks.

World Socialist Web Site interviews historian Dr. Joseph Scalice

Watch: Lecture exposes role of Communist Party of the Philippines in propping up Duterte regime

NYU’s Center for Social Media & Politics: A think tank for a frightened ruling class

By Elliott Murtagh, 12 September 2020

The establishment of the center at NYU, a university with close ties to the state, reflects the ruling class’s increasing concerns over the political effects of social media.

Two decades of US “war on terror” responsible for displacing at least 37 million people and killing up to 12 million

By Jacob Crosse, 9 September 2020

Once more: What has happened to the #MeToo witch-hunt?

By David Walsh, 8 September 2020

Oppose the unsafe reopening of New York University!

By the International Youth and Students for Social Equality at NYU, 8 September 2020

Student paper defends plan for segregated living spaces at New York University

The unanswered questions in the latest Russian “meddling” allegations

By Andre Damon, 7 September 2020

End the blacklist of the World Socialist Web Site on Reddit!

The New York Times slanders left-wing opposition to Biden as “Russian propaganda”

The Movement for a People’s Party: No program, no principles, no future

By Jacob Crosse and Joseph Kishore, 7 September 2020

The global campaign to reopen schools and the international strategy of the working class

By Evan Blake, 4 September 2020

For a general strike against the reopening of schools!

Attend the UK online education forum Saturday September 5, 2pm
Form independent rank-and-file safety committees of teachers, educators, parents and students! For a general strike against the reopening of schools!

SEP (US) Congress resolution
The global pandemic, the class struggle, and the tasks of the Socialist Equality Party

1 August 2020

Arts Review

Australia’s brutal immigration policy in Stateless: “What is my crime?”

By Joanne Laurier, 12 September 2020

Stateless, now showing on Netflix, deals with the harsh Australian immigration detention program and the horrors inflicted on persecuted refugees fleeing colonial wars.

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences plan for racial and gender criteria: A right-wing attack on artistic freedom

By David Walsh, 11 September 2020

Film version of Jack London’s Martin Eden: An artist who loses touch with everyday life

By David Walsh, 11 September 2020

Two novellas on the #MeToo issue: Mary Gaitskill’s This is Pleasure and James Lasdun’s Afternoon of a Faun

By Sandy English, 9 September 2020

Science

Smoking in the age of COVID: Some immunological considerations

By Henry Hakamaki, 12 September 2020

Smoking and e-cigarettes are directly associated with increased risk of infection by the novel coronavirus.

Human disturbances of wild areas increase the likelihood of future pandemics

By Philip Guelpa, 10 September 2020

Workers Struggles

India: Petrol refinery and agricultural marketing workers strike against privatisation; Pakistani government workers strike against pay freeze
Workers Struggles: Asia and Australia

12 September 2020

The World Socialist Web Site invites workers and other readers to contribute to this regular feature.

Unifor selects Ford Canada as target company to establish “pattern contract”

By Carl Bronski, 10 September 2020

Socialist Equality Party

“It’s not safe for my kids but they are forcing me to send them to school”
UK Educators Rank-and-File Committee holds initial meeting

By our reporter, 9 September 2020

Socialist Equality Group in Turkey condemns attack against TİP deputy after threats from interior minister

By Sosyalist Eşitlik, 3 September 2020

SEP US presidential election campaign

Supreme Court refuses to hear SEP challenge to Michigan ballot access denial

By Kevin Reed, 9 September 2020

The Socialist Equality Party denounces Trump’s mass arrest of 2,000 immigrants!

By Norissa Santa Cruz—SEP candidate for US vice president, 4 September 2020

SEP submits emergency application to the US Supreme Court in Michigan ballot access case

By Kevin Reed, 1 September 2020

International Youth and Students for Social Equality

Youth and students: Oppose the deadly reopening of schools! Take a stand on the side of the teachers and the working class!

By the International Youth and Students for Social Equality (US), 3 September 2020

“How war and dictatorship are prepared at universities”
Well-attended online meeting concludes IYSSE election campaign at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

By our reporters, 4 August 2020

25 years ago: International Workers Bulletin available on internet for the first time

On September 11, 1995, the International Workers Bulletin—the US predecessor of the World Socialist Web Site—was made available in its entirety on the internet for the first time.

More »

50 years ago: Palestinian guerrillas hijack airplanes to Jordan

On September 9, 1970, members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) hijacked the last of four planes seized and taken to Dawson’s Field, a remote airstrip outside of Zarqa, Jordan.

More »

75 years ago: Chinese Communist Party wins victories in renewed civil war

This week in September 1945, the Chinese Communist Party secured several military victories over the country’s right-wing nationalist Kuomintang government, even as truce negotiations continued.

More »

100 years ago: Communist Party of Turkey founded

On September 10, 1920, the Communist Party of Turkey was founded in Baku, the capital of the recently established Soviet Azerbaijan, as the Turkish section of the Communist International.

More »

History

The lessons of the 1953 mass uprising (hartal) in Sri Lanka

By Saman Gunadasa, 2 September 2020

The 2020 US election

Trump incites vigilante violence against peaceful protests in Wisconsin

By Joseph Kishore—SEP candidate for US President, 31 August 2020

In the face of increasing government, fascist attacks
Protests against police violence continue across the US

DSA member in Spokane, Washington detained by unidentified officers before police violence protest

Social crisis, class struggle and the 2020 election

By Andre Damon, 29 August 2020

Socialist Equality Party (Sri Lanka)

Sri Lankan SEP thanks those who supported its defence campaign

By the Socialist Equality Party (Sri Lanka), 1 September 2020

Sri Lankan SEP to hold online lecture on how to fight Rajapakse’s dictatorial moves

After the Sri Lankan election, president moves towards dictatorial rule

Socialist Equality Party (Australia)

The coronavirus pandemic, the crisis of capitalism and the tasks of the SEP

By the Socialist Equality Party (Australia), 26 August 2020

Build the International Youth and Students for Social Equality!

Free Julian Assange! Defend Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden!

SEP (Australia) holds successful fifth national congress

Book Review

The Kill Chain: A new era of world war

By Shuvu Batta, 29 August 2020

Obituary

Bernard Bailyn, historian of American colonial and revolutionary periods, 1922–2020

By Tom Mackaman, 13 August 2020

Socialist Equality Party (US)

Now available
The Fourth International and the Perspective of World Socialist Revolution: 1986–1995

12 August 2020

The paperback edition of this critical book on the history of the Fourth International is now available.

Internet Censorship

Open Letter from WSWS Chairman David North to Alphabet Chief Executive Officer Sundar Pichai

31 July 2020

An open letter to Google: Stop the censorship of the Internet! Stop the political blacklisting of the World Socialist Web Site!

25 August 2017

Google suppressing World Socialist Web Site content in its search results for the New York Times’ 1619 Project