US threats over Timor militias raise political tensions in Indonesia

By James Conachy, 30 September 2000

Mounting international insistence that Indonesia comply with the September 8 UN Security Council resolution to disarm and disband the militia groups operating in West Timor is heightening instability within the government of President Abdurrahman Wahid.

Australian government launches police raids over leaked Timor documents

By Mike Head, 23 September 2000

In a clumsy bid to silence critics of its record in East Timor and Indonesia, the Howard government has launched a series of police raids over last year's leaking to the media of intelligence documents relating to the militia violence in East Timor.

Documents reveal that Australia urged Indonesia to invade East Timor in 1975

By Mike Head, 18 September 2000

Official documents released by the Australian government last week confirm that the Whitlam Labor government actively encouraged the Suharto regime in Indonesia to invade East Timor in 1975, a policy that led to the deaths of an estimated 200,000 Timorese people in the following years.

As bomb blast kills 15 in Jakarta

Suharto fails to appear for corruption trial again

By Peter Symonds, 15 September 2000

Yesterday, for a second time, a court in South Jakarta attempted to begin the trial of former Indonesian military strongman Suharto on charges of corruption. The proceedings took place amid speculation that supporters of the ex-president were responsible for the car bomb blast that rocked the Jakarta Stock Exchange building on Wednesday, killing at least 15 people and seriously injuring another 26.

International pressure for intervention into West Timor after UN staff killed

By Mike Head, 11 September 2000

Australia and other Western governments have seized upon last week's militia killing of UN staff in West Timor to raise the prospect of lengthening the Australian-led UN military intervention into East Timor, and extending it into the Indonesian-controlled western half of the island.

Indonesian parliament takes a step toward removing President Abdurrahman Wahid

By James Conachy, 1 September 2000

The lower house of the Indonesian parliament, the DPR, voted on Monday to initiate investigations into President Abdurrahman Wahid's involvement in two alleged cases of corruption and into whether he lied when asked to explain the sacking of two government ministers in April. The decision is the first step in a process that could lead to his removal from office.

Indonesian parliamentary session marked by collaboration between "reformers" and Suharto's Golkar

By James Conachy, 24 August 2000

The annual two-week session of Indonesia's Peoples Consultative Assembly (MPR) from August 7 to 18 witnessed growing collaboration between Golkar, the political machine of the former Suharto military dictatorship, and the Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle (PDI-P), led by Vice-President Megawati Sukarnoputri.

Why the Far Eastern Economic Review has opened its pages to the radical left in Indonesia

By Peter Symonds, 18 August 2000

One of the most significant articles to appear about Indonesia in the international press recently was an interview with Budiman Soedjatmiko, chairman of Indonesia's leftist People's Democratic Party (PRD), in the June 22 issue of the Far Eastern Economic Review.

Political factions turn on Indonesian President Wahid

By James Conachy, 11 August 2000

This week's session of the Indonesian People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) has seen the Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle (PDI-P), promoted as “reformers” in 1998, form an alliance with Golkar, the political apparatus of the former Suharto dictatorship, to undermine the position of President Abdurrahman Wahid and refashion the government.

Indonesian president faces a confrontation at next month's MPR session

By Peter Symonds, 25 July 2000

Events of the last week in Jakarta confirm that the August 7-8 session of Indonesia's People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) is shaping up as a critical turning point for President Abdurrahman Wahid. Spokesmen for the major parties have publicly ruled out any move to impeach Wahid but behind the scenes the possibility is obviously being actively canvassed. The principal reason why the public debate is somewhat muted is the fear on all sides that the political wrangling will cause the rupiah and share prices to fall even further and compound the country's already precarious economic position.

Over 400 lost in Indonesian ferry tragedy as refugees flee fighting in the Malukus

By Angela Pagano, 11 July 2000

Ten survivors were picked up a week ago from an overcrowded Indonesian ferry, which had nearly 500 people on board and went missing after it left the Malukus. The ship was carrying 198 passengers and crew as well as 290 refugees fleeing from the religious conflict that has escalated over recent weeks. It was only licensed to carry 250 passengers.

A delicate balancing act

Indonesian government moves tentatively to put Suharto on trial

By Peter Symonds, 3 June 2000

In a move taken largely for public show, the Indonesian Attorney General's office announced on Monday that former president General Suharto was now under house arrest. The ex-military strongman, who was forced to resign in May 1998 in the midst of a deepening economic and political crisis, had previously been under “city arrest”. He now has to seek a permit to move about in Jakarta.

Indonesian government walking a political tightrope on Aceh truce

By Mike Head, 23 May 2000

Facing mounting international pressure to resolve the 24-year-old conflict in Aceh, the oil-rich province of 4.6 million people on the northern tip of Sumatra, the Indonesian government of President Abdurrahman Wahid has signed a temporary truce with the secessionist Free Aceh Movement (GAM).

The IMF tightens the screws on Indonesia

By Peter Symonds, 22 April 2000

Another International Monetary Fund (IMF) team arrives in Jakarta early next week to again put the Indonesian government and the economy under the spotlight. Having delayed the payment of $400 million in loans that were due in April, IMF officials will examine the extent to which ministers and officials have implemented the detailed economic prescriptions set out in a letter of intent signed in January.

East Timor and Australia's oily politics

By Mike Head, 8 March 2000

Among the most revealing aspects of recent events in East Timor has been the almost complete silence in Australian media and political circles about the two agreements signed by the Australian government last month to secure control over the multi-billion dollar oil and natural gas reserves beneath the Timor Sea.

A symptom of political instability

Indonesian president's backflip over the fate of General Wiranto

By Peter Symonds, 17 February 2000

After performing a full political somersault, Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid signed a decree on Sunday night “suspending” his Coordinating Minister for Security and Political Affairs General Wiranto from cabinet, pending an investigation by the Attorney General into Wiranto's responsibility for pro-Indonesian militia atrocities in East Timor last year.

Australian government secures new East Timor oil treaty

By Mike Head, 15 February 2000

In a little reported ceremony, UN and Australian government representatives signed a new Timor Gap Treaty in Dili last Thursday, securing control over the substantial oil and natural gas reserves under the Timor Sea. The UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) has now officially replaced Indonesia as Australia's partner in exploiting these reserves, valued at between $11 billion and $19 billion.

A strange standoff in Jakarta:

Top Indonesian general continues to reject presidential calls for his resignation

By Peter Symonds, 10 February 2000

The incongruous political standoff over the last 10 days between Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid and his Coordinating Minister for Political and Security Affairs General Wiranto continues. Wahid, who is still flitting from capital to capital on a world tour, has repeatedly called for Wiranto to resign from cabinet but has failed to exercise his formal authority to sack the general. Wiranto has publicly refused to stand down but despite open press speculation about a military coup, appears to have taken little action in that direction.

Report on East Timor atrocities sets stage for political confrontation in Indonesia

By Peter Symonds, 2 February 2000

General Wiranto, Indonesia's top security minister and former Indonesian Armed Forces (TNI) chief, indicated yesterday he will defy demands by President Abdurrahman Wahid to resign from cabinet after he was named in a report by the Indonesia's Commission of Inquiry into Human Rights Violations in East Timor (KPP HAM). Speaking from the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland on Monday, Wahid said that he would call on Wiranto to resign when he returns to Indonesia on February 17.

US dollar to be official currency in East Timor

By Mike Head, 31 January 2000

The UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) announced last Monday that the US dollar would be the official currency of the former Portuguese colony and Indonesian territory. As a result, government transactions must be conducted in dollars for at least the two to three years of UNTAET's expected rule.

East Timor atrocities report threatens to deepen rift in Indonesian government

By Peter Symonds, 29 January 2000

Next Monday's release of a report by Indonesia's Commission of Inquiry into Human Rights Violations in East Timor (KPP HAM) will rapidly bring to a head the simmering tensions between President Abdurrahman Wahid and the top leadership of the country's Armed Forces (TNI).

Resentment mounts against UN administration in East Timor

By Linda Tenenbaum, 21 January 2000

Four months after the Australian-led military occupation of East Timor, the United Nations is establishing a colonial-style administration in the former Indonesian territory. Already, its callous indifference to the plight of the local population is fuelling growing resentment. While hundreds of millions of dollars have been pledged in aid by the major countries, ordinary East Timorese face an ongoing social disaster.

US warns against Indonesian military coup

By Mike Head, 19 January 2000

The United States government has intervened aggressively to bolster the shaky coalition government of Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid, warning that a military coup would lead to economic disintegration and international isolation.

Fighting in the Malukus heightens tensions across Indonesia and within the Wahid cabinet

By Peter Symonds, 10 January 2000

Continued intense fighting between Christian and Muslim groups in the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and North Maluku is fueling religious antagonisms in other parts of the archipelago and threatens to open up divisions within the fragile “national unity” government of President Abdurrahman Wahid.

Military chiefs call the shots in the Indonesian cabinet

By Peter Symonds, 10 December 1999

Comments by Indonesia's Defence Minister Juwono Sudarsono on Tuesday leave little room for doubt that the generals are calling the political shots in the government of President Abdurrahman Wahid. Speaking at a business breakfast in Jakarta, Sudarsono insisted that top officers would not be prosecuted for atrocities carried out in the province of Aceh and repeated an earlier warning that the military would seize control if Wahid did not rule properly.

Australian union joins building companies to win contracts in East Timor

By Terry Cook, 1 December 1999

Australian companies are already positioning themselves to reap lucrative contracts for reconstruction work in East Timor. For the last two months, Multiplex, one of Australia's leading construction companies, has been busy cultivating relations with the leadership of the National Council for Timor Resistance (CNRT) who will be central in determining where the millions of dollars promised for reconstruction will be spent.

Stage set for a clash between Free Aceh supporters and Indonesian security forces

By Peter Symonds, 1 December 1999

Indonesian security forces are preparing for a major confrontation with supporters of the separatist Free Aceh Movement (GAM) on Saturday when large gatherings are expected in the province of Aceh to mark the anniversary of GAM's formation in 1976. On November 8, at least 700,000 people rallied in the provincial capital of Banda Aceh in the north of Sumatra to demand a referendum on independence.

Official disinterest over tens of thousands still missing in East Timor

By Linda Tenenbaum, 20 November 1999

Eight weeks have passed since the UN's Australian-led Interfet force occupied East Timor. In that time the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) has been established, and its leading personnel selected. Some of them, including UNTAET's chief, Brazilian diplomat Sergio Vieira de Mello have already arrived in Dili.

East Timor: the history and politics of the CNRT

By Mike Head, 17 November 1999

Recent months have seen considerable promotion of the East Timorese leaders by the international media and various governments, particularly in Europe and Australia. Led by Xanana Gusmao and Jose Ramos Horta, members of the National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT) have been hailed as veteran fighters for independence.

Rifts appear in Indonesian regime over Aceh

By Mike Head, 12 November 1999

A mass rally last Monday in the Indonesian province of Aceh—where up to one million people demanded a referendum on secession—has exposed rifts within the new Indonesian regime over how to quell the separatist campaign.

The UN in East Timor: all the trappings of a colonial protectorate

By Linda Tenenbaum, 6 November 1999

On October 25 the United Nations Security Council voted to set up an interim administration in East Timor with the purported aim of assisting the tiny territory's transition to “independence. As with the 15-nation “peacekeeping” force (INTERFET), currently deployed under Australian leadership, the real purpose of the mission is to open the half-island up to the major powers. Lucrative investments will be on offer, as well as the exploitation of East Timor's natural resources and significant reserves of cheap labour.

The new Indonesian cabinet: a precarious government of "national unity"

By Peter Symonds, 30 October 1999

The Indonesian cabinet, announced on Tuesday and formally sworn in yesterday, has been generally hailed in the international media as a “break from the past,” ushering in a new period of democracy led by newly-installed President Abdurrahman Wahid and Vice-President Megawati Sukarnoputri.

New Indonesian president pledges to encourage foreign investment and private enterprise

By Peter Symonds, 26 October 1999

Only days after his appointment as Indonesian president, Abdurrahman Wahid has sketched out the main lines of his term of office: the promotion of foreign investment and free market reforms; a nationalist appeal for a “stronger Indonesia,” and closer ties with Japan, China and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). He was speaking in Bali on Sunday at a three-day conference of foreign businessmen, diplomats and academics organised by economic consultants Van Zorge Heffernan & Associates.

Megawati inserted as Indonesian vice-president to head off social unrest

By Peter Symonds, 22 October 1999

Another day of sharp political twists and turns in Jakarta on Thursday resulted in Megawati Sukarnoputri being selected by the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) as vice-president to serve alongside the newly-elected president Abdurrahman Wahid.

Indonesia votes to hand over East Timor to UN control

By Peter Symonds, 21 October 1999

Indonesia's People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) voted in the early hours of Wednesday to endorse the results of the UN-organised referendum on East Timor and to rescind the body's 1978 decree declaring the former Portuguese colony to be the country's 27th province.

A travesty of democracy: Indonesian parliament anoints Abdurrahman Wahid as president

By Peter Symonds, 21 October 1999

After more than a week of political machinations and backroom dealings between parliamentary factions, Abdurrahman Wahid, head of the Islamic National Awakening Party (PKB) was anointed Indonesian president yesterday by the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR).

Habibie's speech to the Indonesian parliament sparks protests and criticism

By Peter Symonds, 16 October 1999

Indonesian President B.J. Habibie's speech to the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) on Thursday night may well be his swansong. Outside the parliament building, thousands of student demonstrators, demanding Habibie drop his bid for reelection, clashed with security forces. Inside the MPR, Habibie had to contend with interruptions and interjections from members as he delivered a formal accountability speech defending his 16-month term of office.

East Timor provokes Australian foreign policy crisis

By Linda Tenenbaum, 14 October 1999

Less than a month after it began, Australia's military deployment into East Timor has provoked rising political tensions and a profound crisis in foreign policy. The intensifying pressures exploded last week in a public slanging match between current Australian Prime Minister John Howard and his immediate predecessor, the former Labor Prime Minister, Paul Keating.

Australian special forces operating in East Timor months before UN ballot

By Peter Symonds, 12 October 1999

Australian special forces and navy divers were involved in clandestine operations inside East Timor months before Indonesia gave the go-ahead for the Australian-led Interfet troops to land in the territory, according to an article published yesterday in the Sydney Morning Herald.

Public meetings to be held in Australia

Military intervention in East Timor: What are the real motives?

9 October 1999

The Socialist Equality Party (Australia) has issued an invitation to all those who wish to understand and discuss the driving forces behind recent events in East Timor to attend public meetings in Sydney and Melbourne, in late October and early November. Under the title "Military intervention in East Timor: What are the real motives?" the meetings will explain the economic, political and strategic interests at stake and advance an alternative socialist and internationalist strategy.

Sordid political horsetrading in the new Indonesian parliament

By Peter Symonds, 7 October 1999

If voters had hopes that the Indonesian elections in June would result in a break from the military-backed regime then they have been dashed during the initial four days of meetings of the new People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) in Jakarta.

Australian led "peace-keepers" strike temporary deal with Falintil in East Timor

By Linda Tenenbaum, 6 October 1999

The Australian-led “peacekeeping” force in East Timor, has struck a deal with Falintil commanders allowing pro-independence guerillas to keep their weapons—but only temporarily, and in specially-designated areas.

What the UN knew about militia violence in East Timor

By Nick Beams, 6 October 1999

Below we publish a reply by Nick Beams, a member of the International Editorial Board of the World Socialist Web Site , to a letter to the WSWS defending the role of the UN in East Timor. The letter was written in response to the article “Kosovo and East Timor: a reply to a WSWS reader” published on October 1. For those who wish to read the text of the letter in full, a link is provided at the conclusion of this reply.

Indonesian parliament convenes amid a mounting political crisis

By Peter Symonds, 2 October 1999

When the Indonesian elections were held in June, media commentators and political figures both in Jakarta and internationally predicted, or at least held out the hope, that the poll would inaugurate a new period of democracy and economic and political stability.

Kosovo and East Timor: a reply to a WSWS reader

By Nick Beams, 1 October 1999

Below we publish the reply, prepared by Nick Beams, a member of the International Editorial Board of the World Socialist Web Site, to a letter sent to the WSWS on the Australian-led UN intervention into East Timor by a reader in New Zealand. For those who wish to read the text of the letter in full, a link is provided at the conclusion of this reply.

The Western powers and East Timor—a history of manoeuvre and intrigue

By Nick Beams, 1 October 1999

Claims that the Australian-led United Nations military intervention in East Timor is motivated by “humanitarian” concerns are belied by the historical record. The tragedy befalling the East Timorese people is the outcome of intrigues and manoeuvres, stretching back over decades, by the very imperialist powers now proposing to “save” them. As much of this record is not well known, it is worthwhile reviewing it in some detail.

Letter from a WSWS reader

1 October 1999


Australia heading for a "quagmire" in East Timor

By Peter Symonds, 28 September 1999

Just over a week after the Australian-led International Force for East Timor (Interfet) began landing in the capital of Dili, the realisation is dawning in Canberra that the operation could become bogged down in a protracted and dirty guerrilla war.

Military kills five protesters as Indonesian parliament enacts sweeping security law

By Peter Symonds, 25 September 1999

Thousands of protesters clashed with police and heavily armed troops in cities across Indonesia on Thursday and Friday, as the outgoing House of Representatives (DPR) pushed through a new law giving extensive powers to the military when a state of emergency is declared nationally or in a province. In a bid to defuse the demonstrations against the Prevention of Trouble Bill, the government yesterday evening postponed the bill's implementation.

New evidence of Britain's arms trade with Indonesia

By Tony Hyland, 22 September 1999

The Labour government's pretence of an “ethical” foreign policy looks increasingly threadbare as new evidence mounts over its arms sales to Indonesia.

Australian imperialism and East Timor: The Prime Minister's Address to the Nation

By Nick Beams, 21 September 1999

Delivering his “Address to the Nation” on national television on Sunday night, Australian Prime Minister John Howard opened a new chapter in the history of Australian imperialism.

Indonesians protest against security bill and Timor atrocities

By Mike Head, 18 September 1999

In events little reported outside Indonesia, security forces this week fired shots and tear gas at hundreds of demonstrators protesting in Jakarta and other major cities against a draft bill on state security and the military terror in East Timor.

Correspondence on East Timor

17 September 1999

I attended the GPO rally in support of the East Timor people and also democracy as a supreme political principle. I read your analysis and found myself disgusted enough to write to you.

East Timor and protest politics

By Linda Tenenbaum, 17 September 1999

Tens of thousands of people have demonstrated in Australia's major cities over the past week to express outrage at the Indonesian military-organised carnage in East Timor. Many are deeply suspicious of the Howard government's motives in pushing for an Australian-led UN “peacekeeping” force, mindful of Australia's record of intimate collaboration with the blood-soaked Indonesian regime for the past quarter century.

Indonesia's accomplices spearhead East Timor "peacekeeping" force

By Barry Grey, 16 September 1999

Following passage of a United Nations Security Council resolution mandating the deployment of a multinational “peacekeeping” force in East Timor, American and Australian officials have stressed that the Australian-led troops will operate in cooperation with the Indonesian military.

"Shoot-to-kill" mandate

Vietnam War veteran to command Australian forces in Timor

By Mike Head, 15 September 1999

The Australian government decided yesterday to name a decorated Vietnam War veteran to head the Australian and United Nations force to be dispatched to Indonesian-occupied East Timor. His selection highlights the aggressive nature of the operation being prepared under the disguise of humanitarianism.

US threats clear way for military intervention in East Timor

By Nick Beams, 14 September 1999

Threats by US President Bill Clinton that the Indonesian economy would be “crashed” were the crucial factor in securing the “invitation” by the Habibie government for the establishment of a UN “peacekeeping force” in East Timor.

East Timor and Kosovo: Indonesian atrocities expose US hypocrisy on “human rights”

By Barry Grey, 13 September 1999

Only a few months ago the US government and the American media were engaged in a massive propaganda campaign to portray the war against Serbia as a crusade for human rights. The American and international public were bombarded with daily reports of mass murder, rape and forced expulsions of Albanian Kosovars by Serbian forces, and Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic was routinely compared to Hitler.

Australian government threatens to imprison Timorese refugees

By Mike Head, 11 September 1999

The hypocrisy of the Australian government's claims to be concerned by the fate of the East Timorese people has been exposed by its threat to detain fleeing refugees. Australia's northern coast is only 600 kilometres from Timor, making it feasible for the victims of the Indonesian terror to seek sanctuary, whether by boat or evacuation flights.

Habibie loses out in power struggle with Indonesian military

By Nick Beams, 10 September 1999

Reports from the Indonesian capital, Jakarta, suggest that interim president B.J. Habibie has been virtually stripped of his powers, with effective command passing to Defence Minister and armed forces chief General Wiranto. Regardless of the precise outcome, this week's events show that the military remains the real force in Indonesia, despite the so-called democratic changes of the past 18 months.

Australia prepares military intervention in East Timor

What are the real motives?

By Nick Beams, 8 September 1999

Moves by the Howard government and the Australian military to lead an armed intervention in East Timor have nothing to do with protecting the interests and welfare of the East Timorese people against the terror campaign unleashed by Indonesian-organised militia forces.

Pressure stepped up for UN force in East Timor

By Nick Beams, 7 September 1999

Mounting pressure is being applied by the major Western powers on the Indonesian government of President B. J. Habibie to invite a United Nations military force to take over administration of the former Portuguese colony of East Timor. The growing demand for UN military intervention comes as Indonesian army backed militia groups step up their terror campaign against the East Timorese population following last Saturday's announcement of a 78.5 percent vote for independence.

After vote for secession

Western powers accelerate plans for military intervention in Timor

By Mike Head, 4 September 1999

Western powers are bringing forward plans for military intervention in the Indonesian-occupied former Portuguese colony of East Timor following today's release of the results of last Monday's United Nations-supervised ballot on secession.

Clashes continue in Dili as

East Timorese prepare to vote in UN referendum

By Peter Symonds, 28 August 1999

Just days before the UN-supervised referendum was due to take place over the future of East Timor, violent clashes erupted in the capital of Dili between pro-Indonesian militia groups and supporters of the separatist National Council for Timorese Resistance (CNRT).

Bank Bali scandal puts pressure on Indonesian President Habibie

By Peter Symonds, 24 August 1999

The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have both made public calls over the last week for an independent, public inquiry in Indonesia into a scandal involving $US78 million siphoned off from Bank Bali. Such an inquiry threatens to further undermine President B.J. Habibie and his re-election bid, as several of those most closely involved are connected to the ruling Golkar Party.

Leaked documents show ...

Plan to send 15,000 US Marines to East Timor

By Mike Head, 12 August 1999

Leaked Australian documents show that White House officials and US military commanders have detailed plans to send 15,000 Marines to the Indonesian province of East Timor, before or after the scheduled August 30 vote on secession, under the pretext of protecting the Timorese people from the Indonesian military.

US pushes for military involvement in East Timor

By Mike Head, 7 August 1999

The Clinton administration in Washington is pushing for a substantial military involvement—including US Marines—in East Timor. The force would be deployed before or after the people of the half island vote in an August 30 UN-run ballot on secession from Indonesia. According to two media reports, the US proposals have led to tensions with the Howard government in Australia.

Indonesian military cracks down in Ambon, Batam and Aceh

By Peter Symonds, 5 August 1999

Fresh outbreaks of fighting on the Indonesian islands of Ambon and Batam as well as the activities of the separatist movement in Aceh have been met by the increasingly aggressive use of force by the Indonesian regime and the armed forces.

Indonesian opposition leader Megawati breaks two months' silence

By Peter Symonds, 31 July 1999

After nearly two months of silence following the June 7 Indonesian national elections, opposition figure Megawati Sukarnoputri staked her claim to government in a nationally televised speech lasting 80 minutes on Thursday. She said she had a mandate from the people to form a new government and called on President B.J. Habibie “not to take strategic and binding decisions without consulting the party which represents the majority of the vote”. Her Indonesian Democratic Party-Struggle (PDI-P) won 33.7 percent of the vote as against just 22 percent for the ruling Golkar Party.

A military massacre in Aceh

By Mike Head, 29 July 1999

In what witnesses described as a massacre, Indonesian troops shot dead up to 60 people and wounded 10 last Friday in two villages in the western part of Aceh, the oil-rich region on the northern tip of Sumatra. It was the worst military killing this year in what has become an escalating campaign to suppress the secessionist Free Aceh movement.

Indonesian generals bid for a major role in next government

By Peter Symonds, 26 July 1999

A feature article in last week's edition of the US-based BusinessWeek magazine revealed details of a concerted push by the Indonesian military for a major public role in the new government to be formed later in the year, including either the presidency or vice-presidency for the present Defence Minister and Armed Forces Chief General Wiranto.

US and World Bank threaten Indonesia over Timor

By Mike Head, 23 July 1999

The United States and the World Bank have both threatened Indonesia with diplomatic and financial retaliation if the Jakarta regime continues to support militia attacks on people in East Timor, in the lead-up to next month's scheduled UN-supervised ballot on autonomy or secession. The threats from Washington underscore the critical economic and strategic interests at issue in the former Portuguese colony and throughout the entire Indonesian archipelago.

Interviews and documents show ...

US orchestrated Suharto's 1965-66 slaughter in Indonesia

Part 3: New light on Australia's active involvement

By Mike Head, 21 July 1999

Previously-secret documents at the Australian Archives in Canberra indicate that the Australian government—then led by Liberal Party Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies—and the Australian military, intelligence and diplomatic services were closely involved in the 1965-66 Indonesian coup carried out by General Suharto.

Interviews and documents show ...

US orchestrated Suharto's 1965-66 slaughter in Indonesia

Part 2: Washington called for military government

By Mike Head, 20 July 1999

Documents from the US State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) indicate that, having seized power on October 1, 1965, Indonesia's General Suharto and other army generals—acting on the urgings of US leaders—used military and Muslim death squads to massacre of hundreds of thousands of workers, students and peasants.

Interviews and documents show...

US orchestrated Suharto's 1965-66 slaughter in Indonesia

Part 1: New evidence on how the October 1 coup was triggered

By Mike Head, 19 July 1999

Damning new evidence has come to light pointing to the extent of the involvement of the United States government, closely supported by the Australian and British administrations, in the military coup staged in Indonesia by General Suharto on October 1, 1965 and the subsequent massacre of up to one million workers, peasants, students and political activists.

Militia attacks on UN posts in East Timor

By Peter Symonds, 7 July 1999

A series of attacks over the past week on United Nations posts and personnel in East Timor has further undermined the poll due to be held towards the end of August over the future of the territory.

UN Timor ballot delayed as military violence continues

By Mike Head, 28 June 1999

Widespread military-organised violence has caused the United Nations to delay its proposed ballot on East Timorese secession from Indonesia from August 8 to August 21. Tensions between the UN and the Habibie regime in Jakarta have, moreover, thrown the entire balloting process into doubt, with Habibie declaring that he will not allow any further postponement.

Eye-witness says Indonesian minister shot newsmen in Timor

By Mike Head, 23 June 1999

According to front-page reports in two Australian newspapers, a former East Timorese militia commander has accused the Indonesian Information Minister, Lieutenant-General Yunus Yosfiah, of personally participating in the murder of five Australian-based newsmen in the leadup to the 1975 invasion of East Timor.

IMF sets economic agenda for next Indonesian government

By Peter Symonds, 22 June 1999

The final count in the Indonesian national election is not due until July 8. And the wheeling and dealing between the major parties to determine who will be the next president and form the next government will only be concluded when the vote in the Peoples Consultative Assembly (MPR) is taken in November. But the basic economic policies of the government, whatever its final makeup, have already been determined by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as part of its $45 billion financial aid package to Indonesia.

Indonesian elections: an overwhelming vote against the ruling Golkar Party

By Peter Symonds, 12 June 1999

As of Friday morning, official figures in the counting of votes for the Indonesian elections showed a clear vote against the ruling Golkar Party and in favour of opposition parties headed by Megawati Sukarnoputri, Abdurrahman Wahid and Amien Rais, which are part of a loose alliance.

Indonesian police seize eight students during a Bandung election rally

7 June 1999

The WSWS received the following information from an Indonesian reader. Eight students were seized during an election rally last Thursday in Bandung, one of the country's largest cities. The details of the incident make clear that the police and armed forces, including their intelligence units, have been active in the course of the Indonesian election campaign. The detentions point to the real character of the military-backed regime just below the veneer of democracy so carefully cultivated during the election campaign. It is also a sharp warning of the type of police treatment that will be meted out after the poll to anti-government protesters.

The thin façade of democracy:

Army on full alert as Indonesian voters go to the polls

By Peter Symonds, 7 June 1999

Great efforts are being made to portray the elections taking place in Indonesia today as democratic, or if not, at least a step in that direction. Thirteen international delegations are fielding almost 530 election observers. They include a joint team from the US National Democratic Institute and a centre headed by former US president Jimmy Carter. Millions of dollars have been provided by the European Union, the US, Australia and others to stage the poll and assist the army of local monitoring teams organised by bodies like the University Network for a Free and Fair Election (UNIFREL), the Independent Committee for Election Monitoring (KIPP) and the Election Monitoring Committee (SBSI).

Indonesian election campaign:

East Timor trip provides a revealing glimpse of Megawati's politics

By Peter Symonds, 4 June 1999

Indonesian opposition leader Megawati Sukarnoputri's trip to East Timor on Tuesday provided an insight into the political character of her campaign for the country's elections on June 7. Addressing a crowd of about 3,500, she reiterated her position that the island should remain part of Indonesia. “The people of East Timor have to be shoulder to shoulder—one family with us,” she stated.

Indonesian garment workers continue to fight company violence

By Terry Cook, 3 June 1999

The World Socialist Web Site last month published an appeal for support for garment workers at the Japanese-owned PT Impian Busana, in Surabaya, Indonesia, who are fighting the company's attempts to victimise workers who played a prominent role in a strike early in May for improved working conditions and wages.

Indonesia's ruling party faces collapse of support

By Peter Symonds, 28 May 1999

Even before the votes are cast and counted in the Indonesia's national elections, the ruling Golkar party is under considerable pressure with signs of bitter divisions as it faces the prospect of major losses at the polls on June 7.

Warnings of civil war in East Timor

By Peter Symonds, 27 May 1999

Tensions on East Timor continue to mount ahead of a UN-sponsored vote on the future of the island planned for August 8.

A letter from Indonesia on the upcoming elections

26 May 1999

To the editor:

As the elections draw near

Exposure of Suharto's billions puts Indonesian regime on the defensive

By Peter Symonds, 26 May 1999

An extensive report on the Suharto family's huge wealth in the May 24 issue of the US-based Time magazine has thrown Indonesian President Habibie and the ruling Golkar Party onto the defensive in the midst of the campaign for the country's national elections on June 7.

Signs of disarray in opposition alliance in Indonesian elections

By Peter Symonds, 22 May 1999

Only a few days after its formation on Monday, the alliance forged between three of the major opposition parties standing in the Indonesian elections on June 7 is showing signs of disarray.

The political tasks facing the working class

The Indonesian elections and the struggle for democracy

the Editorial Board, 21 May 1999

Also in Indonesian

US to train Indonesian police in riot control

By Gadis Mardai, 13 May 1999

In the next several days, a team of American police commanders will be sent to Indonesia as a part of a program to train the Indonesian police force in riot-control techniques. Besides instruction in how to deal with crowds of anti-government demonstrators, the US delegation will discuss relations between the police and news organizations and opposition political parties.

Amid continuing militia violence

UN threatens to call off East Timor poll

By Peter Symonds, 13 May 1999

Just days after Indonesia and Portugal signed a UN-brokered agreement for a vote to determine the future of East Timor, the UN has warned that it would call off the "consultation" scheduled for August 8 unless local militias are disarmed. Francesco Vendrell, a spokesman for UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, said all armed groups would have to lay down their weapons "by early July at least".

Indonesian garment workers suffer shocking conditions and victimisation

By Terry Cook, 13 May 1999

An appeal for support from striking Indonesian garment workers employed by the Japanese-owned Berbek sweater manufacturing company in Sidoarjo, East Java, reveals the sweatshop conditions under which they are forced to work.

Timor agreement leaves military in charge of "consultation"

By Mike Head, 8 May 1999

A group of 200 pro-independence students in the East Timor capital of Dili reportedly danced, cheered and waved two large independence flags on Thursday after hearing news that Indonesia and Portugal had signed an agreement in New York for the conduct of a UN-sponsored "consultation" on autonomy for the province. Speaking from Jakarta, where he is still under house arrest, Xanana Gusmao, the leader of the Timorese National Resistance Council (CNRT), claimed it was an "historic document".

Indonesian military shoots 31 people dead in Aceh

By Peter Symonds, 6 May 1999

Indonesian troops shot dead as many as 31 people on Monday in the province of Aceh, on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. The soldiers fired automatic weapons into a crowd of thousands of villagers gathered near the industrial town of Kreung Geukueh to protest at the heavy-handed actions of the military over the weekend. Some people were shot in the back as they attempted to flee.

Despite "peace" talks, killings continue in East Timor

By Mike Head, 27 April 1999

Pro-Indonesian militias in East Timor are continuing to kill and threaten independence supporters and stage intimidatory armed rallies, despite Indonesian government-staged "peace" talks on the island and an Indonesian-Portuguese deal in New York to hold a UN-backed "consultation" on autonomy.

Western calls for intervention mount after Timor killings

By Mike Head, 20 April 1999

Western governments and media columnists have stepped up calls for military intervention in East Timor after pro-Indonesian militias killed at least 20 people and abducted dozens more in two days of violence throughout the provincial capital of Dili last weekend.

Pro-Indonesian militia step up violence on East Timor

By Peter Symonds, 14 April 1999

The death toll on East Timor is rising rapidly as pro-Indonesian militia continue a campaign of rallies and attacks on pro-independence supporters. A climate of fear and intimidation is being established as Indonesian and Portuguese officials prepare for UN-sponsored talks next week over the future status of the island.

Pro-Indonesian militia murder at least 25 East Timorese

By Peter Symonds, 9 April 1999

Pro-Indonesian militia have launched a series of attacks on pro-independence supporters in the Maubara sub-district of East Timor west of the capital of Dili, as preparations continue for negotiations later in the month between Indonesia and Portugal over the fate of the former Portuguese colony.

Indonesia: Racial killings in Kalimantan fostered by government policy

By Peter Symonds, 6 April 1999

In response to the demands of ethnic leaders in West Kalimantan, Indonesian authorities are preparing to relocate thousands of Madurese settlers caught up in bitter racial clashes in the province. Fighting over the last month has left scores dead and many more homeless.