World’s largest particle accelerator begins operations

Scientists to gain greater understanding of the mysteries of the universe

By Dan Conway, 25 September 2008

On September 10, scientists at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, successfully sent a beam of protons around a 17-mile ring overlapping the borders of France and Switzerland. This marked the beginning of the largest, most ambitious science experiment in all of human history, the Large Hadron Collider.

A letter and reply on Mars landing

26 August 2008

On “Mars Phoenix Lander provides conclusive proof of ice water on Mars”

Mars Phoenix Lander provides conclusive proof of water ice on Mars

By Robert Stevens, 9 August 2008

The Mars Phoenix Lander landed on the planet on May 25. It has begun to return vital information taken from the soil samples, including the conclusive discovery of water ice, as it analyses the chemical composition of the planet.

Einstein letter sold for record sum—Part 2

By Ann Talbot and Chris Talbot, 24 June 2008

This is the conclusion of a two-part article on Albert Einstein and his views on religion. Part 1 was posted June 23.

Einstein letter sold for record sum—Part 1

By Ann Talbot and Chris Talbot, 23 June 2008

This is the first of a two-part article on Albert Einstein and his views on religion.

Phoenix spacecraft lands near Mars polar icecap

By Patrick Martin, 30 May 2008

In the first successful powered landing on Mars in 32 years, the Mars Phoenix Lander touched down on the surface of the planet Sunday, May 26, near the edge of its northern polar icecap. The spacecraft completed a 422-million-mile trip in just under 300 days since its launch last August 4, with virtually flawless performance of all its complex engineering systems.

Britain: Science cuts threaten Jodrell Bank radio telescope

By Robert Stevens, 17 April 2008

The Labour government of Prime Mister Gordon Brown is pushing ahead with unprecedented cuts in the UK science budget, with many critical programmes and facilities now threatened. In March, the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) outlined a Programmatic Review listing all the science projects it funds in order of priority.

Pakistani regime ban of YouTube highlights threat to free Internet

By John Grais, 5 March 2008

On February 22, the Pakistani Telecommunications Authority (PTA) ordered the country’s Internet service providers (ISPs) to block access to YouTube, the world’s most popular video web site. Access was completely restored in Pakistan only after four days, amid popular opposition and allegations of electoral fraud.

US blocks scientific report on Arctic environment

By Niall Green, 5 February 2008

The United States has prevented the full release of a major new assessment of the impact of oil and gas drilling in the Arctic region. The report had taken six years to compile and was produced by scientists working for the Arctic Council, an international body of which the US is a member.

Arctic sea ice reaches record minimum

By Mark Rainer, 26 September 2007

On September 16, the Arctic sea reached its minimum extent for 2007 at 4.13 million square kilometers, breaking the record set on September 21, 2005 of 5.32 million square kilometers. The difference between the previous record and the present one, 1.19 million square kilometers, represents roughly the same area as Texas and California combined. It is a 22 percent loss in extent since 2005.

Arctic sea ice at record low due to global warming

By Mark Rainer, 25 August 2007

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), a US government-funded research center at the University of Colorado, reported this week the lowest Arctic sea ice extent on record with time still left to go in the summer melting season. Arctic sea ice extent is defined as the area of Arctic Ocean that is covered by at least 15 percent ice.

Possible habitable planet discovered: Extending the horizons of humanity

By Rob Stevens, 29 May 2007

A team of Swiss, French and Portuguese astronomers announced on April 24 the discovery of an “exoplanet” known as Gliese 581 c.

Despite interference from US and other countries

Climate change report outlines dire impact of global warming

By Mark Rainer, 10 April 2007

On April 6, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the Working Group II Summary for Policy Makers from its report on “Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.”

Science, religion and society: Richard Dawkins’s The God Delusion

By Joe Kay, 15 March 2007

In his new book, Dawkins has done us a service, if only in making more acceptable the general proposition that religion and science are at odds with each other, and that it is science that should win out.

Scientists conclude global warming is “unequivocal”

By Mark Rainer, 10 February 2007

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the “Summary for Policy Makers” from its fourth assessment report on science of global warming and climate change February 2. The new report concludes that global warming is “unequivocal” and strengthens the previous assessment that most warming in the last 50 years is due to human activity.

Scientists report rampant political interference in climate research

By Naomi Spencer, 5 February 2007

As the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued its urgent assessment Friday, providing alarming information about the advanced state of global warming, Washington immediately moved to downplay the US contribution.

Kyoto’s Clean Development Mechanism: global warming and its market fix

By Mark Rainer, 13 January 2007

Recent developments have exposed a UN greenhouse gas emissions trading program as a lucrative source of profits. The program has hindered investment in technologies that would contribute to a long-term decline in the emissions that cause global warming.

Cuts to NASA budget gut space research

By Frank Gaglioti, 20 May 2006

In a far-reaching reorientation of its programs, the US National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) budget has effectively capped science spending for the five-year period from 2007 to 2011. Programs designed to investigate more fundamental scientific questions about the character of the solar system and the universe are being sacrificed to enable NASA to carry out President George Bush’s grandiose scheme to establish a permanent settlement on the moon in preparation for a manned mission to Mars.

New fossils illuminate the evolution of land vertebrates from fish

By Walter Gilberti, 1 May 2006

A major fossil discovery at a site in northern Canada has provided compelling evidence of the evolutionary transition from ancient fish to the first tetrapods—four-legged terrestrial vertebrates that include amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

Australian television program highlights censorship of climate scientists

By Frank Gaglioti, 17 April 2006

An Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) program entitled “The Greenhouse Mafia”, which appeared in February on the “Four Corners” television series, highlighted the Australian government’s censorship of eminent scientists studying climate change and its subservience to business interests that are heavily dependent on fossil fuels. Scientists from the state-funded Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) were specifically prohibited from discussing the potentially devastating consequences of governments’ failure to reduce greenhouse gases.

Religion and science: a reply to a right-wing attack on philosopher Daniel Dennett

By James Brookfield, 21 March 2006

The 19 February 2006 issue of the New York Times Book Review carries a tendentious attack on Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon, the latest work by American philosopher Daniel Dennett.

Judge rejects government demand for Google search terms

By Mike Ingram, 20 March 2006

In a ruling issued Friday, March 17, Judge James Ware denied a demand from the Department of Justice that search giant Google turn over samples of search terms entered into its web site.

A novel look at life’s unfolding diversity

A review of The Ancestor’s Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution, by Richard Dawkins

By James Brookfield, 24 February 2006

The Ancestor’s Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution,by Richard Dawkins, Mariner Books, 2005, $16, ISBN 0-618-61916-X (paperback)

Darwin: An exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History

By Walter Gilberti, 15 February 2006

Exhibition runs until May 29, 2006. AMNH, located at Central Park West at 79th Street in Manhattan, is open daily from 10 a.m. to 5:45 p.m.

New version of Google Desktop threatens user privacy

By Mike Ingram, 14 February 2006

The announcement last week of a new version of the popular Desktop utility from Google has provoked criticism from privacy groups and stern warnings to users from the digital rights advocate, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF).

Google’s China censorship sets dangerous precedent

By Mike Ingram, 7 February 2006

Google’s decision to abide by Chinese censors in the launch of its new search service is a blow against democratic rights and free speech that sets a dangerous precedent both in China and internationally.

British scientist challenges pharmaceutical company over research paper

By Chris Talbot, 28 January 2006

A British scientist, Dr. Aubrey Blumsohn, has criticised a major pharmaceutical company’s “unethical behaviour” for putting forward a research paper in his name without giving him proper access to the data on which the investigation was based.

University of Michigan evolutionary theme semester

Geneticist Svante Pääbo speaks on chimpanzee genome

By Daniel Douglass, 18 January 2006

In the latest of several major advances in the field of biology and genetics, Svante Pääbo and his fellow researchers in Germany have performed a comparative analysis of the chimpanzee and human genomes. Their work further advances our knowledge of those genetic elements which may distinguish humans from other animals. His most recent data, first published in a paper last year, was presented on January 13 at the opening lecture of the University of Michigan’s “Distinguished Speaker Series,” a lecture series oriented to the public and part of Michigan’s “Evolution Theme Semester.”

US secures continued control of Internet naming system

By Mike Ingram, 23 November 2005

A last-minute agreement reached November 15 on the eve of the UN-sponsored World Summit on the Information Society left control of the Internet’s naming system in the hands of the United States, despite opposition from more than 100 countries.

Order broadens surveillance of Internet users

By Mike Ingram, 26 October 2005

In a serious attack on democratic rights, the US government has greatly increased the scope of legislation introduced in 1994, regarding the electronic monitoring of telecommunications providers.

Microsoft and RealNetworks settle antitrust case

By Mike Ingram, 14 October 2005

Microsoft and RealNetworks announced October 11 a settlement to their antitrust case and the creation of a new partnership worth $761 million to RealNetworks.

Microsoft anti-phishing software raises Internet privacy concerns

By Mike Ingram, 17 September 2005

A phishing filter developed by Microsoft and to be included in the next release of the Windows operating system has raised concern amongst privacy advocates.

A scientific milestone: mapping of rice genome

By Frank Gaglioti, 13 September 2005

The publication of the near complete map of the rice genome in the August 11 issue of Nature will enhance the ability of agricultural science to produce new crop strains that not only increase productivity but expand the range of growing conditions. It will also offer insights into the evolutionary history of one of the most important cereal crops, which has played a prominent part in the historical development of mankind.

An extraordinary feat: NASA probe sent plunging into comet

By Frank Gaglioti, 8 August 2005

In earlier centuries, the rare arrival of a comet in the heavens was often seen as a portent of doom. Now scientists are able to undertake scientific expeditions to determine the make-up, chemical and geological history of these astronomical phenomena, thought to be relics from the earliest stages of the solar system’s formation.

Astronomers discover new planet, larger and more distant than Pluto

By Patrick Martin, 2 August 2005

Three US astronomers announced July 29 that they had identified a new planet, significantly larger than Pluto, and orbiting the sun as far as 9 billion miles out, about three times the orbital radius of the ninth planet. The three scientists, Michael Brown of Caltech, David Rabinowitz of Yale and Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory in Hawaii, used the 48-inch Palomar Observatory telescope in southern California.

NASA grounds space shuttle fleet after near-disaster in Discovery launch

By Patrick Martin, 29 July 2005

In a devastating blow to the US space program, NASA ordered the suspension of all future space shuttle flights Wednesday, pending an investigation into the loss of a large piece of foam insulation during the successful launch of Discovery the previous day. The space agency began an intensive review of the launch, examining photos taken by hundreds of cameras, as well as inspecting the spacecraft’s skin, looking for possible damage.

An exchange on “One hundred years since Albert Einstein’s annus mirabilis”

28 July 2005

The following is an exchange on the four-part series entitled “One hundred years since Albert Einstein’s annus mirabilis”.

Letters, and some replies, on “One hundred years since Einstein’s annus mirabilis”

26 July 2005

The following letters, in some cases with replies, were sent in response to the four-part series entitled “One hundred years since Albert Einstein’s annus mirabilis” by Peter Symonds. The articles were posted as follows: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4.

An exchange on science, evolution and intelligent design

16 July 2005

On June 20, 2005 the World Socialist Web Site published an article on the decision by the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History to show a documentary put out by the Discovery Institute. The Discovery Institute is the country’s foremost advocate of Intelligent Design, a quasi-religious view that aims to attack the theory of biological evolution. [See “An attack on science: Smithsonian Institution to show film on Intelligent Design”].

One hundred years since Albert Einstein’s annus mirabilis

Part 4

By Peter Symonds, 14 July 2005

This is the conclusion of a four-part series on Einstein’s scientific contributions. Part one, part two, and part three were published on July 11, 12 and 13, respectively.

One hundred years since Albert Einstein’s annus mirabilis

Part 3

By Peter Symonds, 13 July 2005

This is the third part of a four-part series on Einstein’s scientific contributions. Part one was published on July 11 and part two on July 12. Part four will be published on July 14.

One hundred years since Albert Einstein’s annus mirabilis

Part 2

By Peter Symonds, 12 July 2005

This is the second part of a four-part series on Einstein’s scientific contributions. Part one was published on July 11. Parts three and four will be published on July 13 and 14 respectively.

One hundred years since Albert Einstein’s annus mirabilis

Part 1

By Peter Symonds, 11 July 2005

This is the first part of a four-part series on Einstein’s scientific contributions. Parts two, three andfour will be published on July 12, 13 and 14 respectively.

Out of space? NASA delays relaunching of shuttle flights

By Patrick Martin, 4 May 2005

The announcement April 29 of a two-month delay in the resumption of space shuttle flights is a warning sign of a deeper crisis in the US space program. While NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin said the flight of Discovery would be rescheduled for mid-July, the problems that caused the delay could lead to an indefinite grounding of the shuttle fleet.

Huygens probe lands on Titan: a scientific leap for mankind

By Robert Stevens, 14 February 2005

“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants”—Sir Isaac Newton

Fossil discovery rewrites human history

By Frank Gaglioti, 5 November 2004

The scientific world has just been given an amazing new insight into the complexities of human evolution. A team of Indonesian and Australian scientists has discovered fossils of a new human species on the island of Flores, midway between Asia and Australia in the Indonesian archipelago. Named Homo floresiensis, the species coexisted with modern humans as recently as 13,000 years ago.

Cassini-Huygens spacecraft begins systematic exploration of Saturn system

By Patrick Martin, 26 July 2004

The successful passage of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft through Saturn’s rings June 30-July 1 sets the stage for an unprecedented four-year exploration of the second largest planet in the solar system and its complex system of 31 moons, powerful magnetic field and unique rings. On July 22, NASA released the first glorious full-color image of the rings, taken as the spacecraft approached them from below in late June (see

Intriguing new discoveries on Mars

By Frank Gaglioti, 24 March 2004

The current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to Mars has already provided significant new evidence that the planet may in the past have been considerably warmer and possessed large amounts of liquid water. The observations made by the small roving vehicle Opportunity raise the possibility that life may have emerged on Mars in a previous, more benign environment.

Scientific triumph on Mars as Spirit lands and explores surface

By Walter Gilberti, 19 January 2004

On Thursday, January 15 the Mars Spirit rover rolled onto the Martian landscape for the first time, after NASA scientists successfully maneuvered the six-wheeled vehicle off the lander, and away from the deflated airbags that were impeding its progress. Now the mission that began so promisingly two weeks ago can continue, with the exploration of a wider swath of the Martian surface.

The Columbia Space Shuttle disaster: science and the profit system

Part 3—Political and economic causes underlying the accident

By Joseph Kay, 22 September 2003

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia was destroyed upon reentry into the earth’s atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. Shortly after the incident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was set up to investigate the causes of the disaster. The board summarized its findings in a report released on August 26. This series of three articles analyzes the report and the accident itself.

The Columbia Space Shuttle disaster: science and the profit system

Part 2: Schedule pressures undermined safety considerations

By Joseph Kay, 20 September 2003

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia was destroyed upon reentry into the earth’s atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. Shortly after the incident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was set up to investigate the causes of the disaster. The board summarized its findings in a report released on August 26. This series of three articles analyzes the report and the accident itself.

The Columbia Space Shuttle disaster: science and the profit system

Part 1: The physical cause of the accident and the decay of shuttle infrastructure

By Joseph Kay, 19 September 2003

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia was destroyed upon reentry into the earth’s atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. Shortly after the incident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was set up to investigate the causes of the disaster. The board summarized its findings in a report released August 26. This series of three articles analyzes the report and the accident itself.

Oldest modern human fossil discovered in Ethiopia

By Frank Gaglioti, 25 July 2003

A team of 45 scientists from 14 different countries led by Professor Tim White from Berkeley University has uncovered and assembled three fossilised skulls from Ethiopia that provide the oldest record of modern humans. The fossils give strong support to what is known as the Out of Africa theory: that humans first evolved in Africa and then migrated to other regions and ultimately the entire globe.

Russian mathematician announces proof of celebrated Poincaré Conjecture

By Alex Lefebvre, 3 June 2003

In early April 2002, Dr. Grigori Perelman of the Steklov Institute of Mathematics in St. Petersburg gave a series of public lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the lectures he explained work laid out in two articles, and how this work will establish a number of important mathematical results, including the famous Poincaré Conjecture. Mathematicians are still examining Perelman’s arguments for possible errors, but up to now they have withstood all criticism.[1]

Human Genome Project completed: an extraordinary scientific achievement

By Frank Gaglioti, 7 May 2003

The publication of the detailed structure of 99 percent of the human genome on April 14 is the culmination of one of the largest scientific undertakings in history. Initiated in 1990, the Human Genome Project (HGP) involved the cooperative work of hundreds of scientists in 20 sequencing centres in countries including China, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan and the United States.

New DNA research points to origins of dogs

By Sandy English, 14 January 2003

A recent issue of the American journal Science has reported new DNA evidence indicating that humans first bred domesticated dogs approximately 15,000 years ago in east Asia.

New fossil may revise the timeline for hominid evolution

By Walter Gilberti, 14 August 2002

A new fossil discovery has thrown the widely accepted time and place for the divergence of the evolutionary lines of humans and chimpanzees into somewhat of a turmoil. Working in southern Chad in central Africa, a team of researchers led by French paleontologist Michel Brunet has uncovered the nearly complete cranium and lower facial fragments of a creature that appears to reside almost at the point of transition between apes and hominids. Hominids are primates that exhibit erect posture and bipedal locomotion, a category that includes humans and their evolutionary forebears.

On the death of paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould

By Walter Gilberti, 1 July 2002

Stephen Jay Gould, the well-known Harvard paleontologist and noted defender of the theory of evolution, died last month from the effects of cancer, at the age of 60. Throughout much of his adult life, Gould has had an intimate association with this dreaded disease.

Research suggests a more complex evolution and spread of modern humans

By Walter Gilberti, 20 April 2002

New research into the genetic pedigree of modern humans may lead to a modification of the widely accepted “out of Africa” theory that explains the origin and worldwide expansion of people, who looked and behaved much like ourselves.

A significant technical advance

First self-contained mechanical heart implanted in the US

By Perla Astudillo, 6 August 2001

Doctors in Louisville, Kentucky successfully transplanted the world’s first self-contained mechanical heart, known as AbioCor, into a diabetic middle-aged man on July 3. In a major achievement for medical science, a battery pack and computerised control unit run the compact-sized artificial heart—all from within the body. These two units control pumping and, for the first time, can adjust the heart rate according to a patient’s level of activity.

Ancient city dated as oldest in Americas

By Sandy English, 26 May 2001

A team of American and Peruvian anthropologists has announced that the city of Caral, 120 miles north of the Peruvian capital of Lima, is the oldest city in the Americas. A radiocarbon analysis has determined that the city was built around 2,600 BC and flourished for 500 years after that. This would make Caral contemporaneous with the building of the Pyramids in Egypt. The new dating makes Caral at least 1,000 years older than any similar settlement in the Americas.

A remarkable achievement for mankind

Scientists release a map of the human genome

By Frank Gaglioti, 28 February 2001

On February 12, scientists from the publicly-funded Human Genome Project (HGP) and Celera Genomics, a privately-funded biotechnology company, released what they termed “an initial working draft sequence” of the human genome. It is the first detailed map of the most significant human genetic structures, covering 90 percent of the gene-rich sections of human DNA. The HGP published its results in the Internet edition of Nature and Celera on the Science web page. A print edition of the journals was released on February 15.

Nobel prize awarded for research into the nervous system, memory and mood

By Perla Astudillo, 26 October 2000

This year's Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to three prominent scientists—Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel—for their ground-breaking work in unravelling the functioning of the brain and nervous system. Their discoveries have deepened our understanding of how nerve cell signals are processed, and hence how signal disturbances in nerves give rise to neurological and psychiatric diseases such as Parkinson's Disease, depression and schizophrenia. This research has already led to treatments for these debilitating conditions and may bring scientists closer to finding cures.

Isaac Newton's papers up for sale

By Ann Talbot, 26 September 2000

A collection of Sir Isaac Newton's papers has been put up for sale, in what is probably the most important auction of scientific manuscripts for 70 years. The papers date from 1669, the most productive period in Newton's life, when he was developing his calculus and his theories of gravity and optics.

Scientists find hints of ocean on Jupiter's moon

By Frank Gaglioti, 5 September 2000

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) scientists recently published tantalising evidence that Europa, one of Jupiter's 17 moons, is covered in a salty ocean underneath an icy crust. This makes it a very good candidate for containing life beyond Earth, as water is considered an essential medium for producing life.

US National Institute of Health announces new guidelines for embryo stem cell research

By Frank Gaglioti, 4 September 2000

On August 23, the National Institute of Health (NIH) published guidelines for the public funding of embryo stem cell research in the United States, an about-face of its previous position. Previously embryo stem cell research was funded exclusively by private sources. The NIH announcement lifts a ban which had been in place on such research since 1996. President Bill Clinton welcomed the announcement as offering “potentially staggering benefits”.

Scientists achieve cellular transformation of bone marrow stem cells into nerve cells

By Frank Gaglioti, 22 August 2000

Scientists announced on 15 August that they have transformed adult bone marrow cells into nerve cells by altering the cells' environment. The implications are that scientists will be able to obtain a deeper insight into the process of cell specialisation.

Discovery of nine new planets extends possibility of finding extra terrestrial life

By Frank Gaglioti, 18 August 2000

Three teams of scientists announced the discovery of nine new planets outside our solar system (exoplanets) on August 7, extending the number of known exoplanets to fifty. University of California at Berkeley astronomer Geoffrey Marcy stated, “We're now at the stage where we are finding planets faster than we can investigate them and write up the results.” The announcements were made at the International Astronomical Union meeting held in the English city of Manchester.

The human genome project: science, society and superstition

By Frank Gaglioti, 15 August 2000

The publication of the rough draft of the completed sequence of the human genome on June 26 was an outstanding scientific achievement, the outcome of an international collaboration spanning a decade and involving hundreds of scientists. The researchers used the most advanced sequencing machines and analysed the resulting data with the aid of powerful computers.

Discovery of fundamental particle concludes long-standing scientific quest

By Frank Gaglioti, 14 August 2000

On July 21 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago reported the discovery of the tau neutrino, marking the conclusion of the scientific quest to discover the 12 fundamental particles which make up matter. An international team of 54 physicists working in the United States, Japan, South Korea and Greece used the powerful particle accelerator, the Tevatron, to make the discovery. A spokesman for the scientific team, Byron Lundberg, stated, “We finally have direct evidence that the tau neutrino is one of the building blocks of nature. It is one thing to think there are tau neutrinos out there. But it is a hard experiment to do.”

Tenth Century manuscript provides insights into the works of Archimedes

By Frank Gaglioti, 3 August 2000

The announcement on July 11 of the availability of a tenth century manuscript of texts by the Greek scientist and mathematician Archimedes offers an important opportunity to probe the works of one of the greatest thinkers of the ancient world. The document provides the oldest known source of Archimedes' writings. Scientists at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore have been given access to portions of the Archimedes Palimpsest by the Walters Arts Gallery in Baltimore as part of a competition to determine which team will decipher Archimedes' entire text. The original work lies hidden beneath an overlay of Greek prayers. A palimpsest is a document where the original script has been scraped or washed away and another text written over the top.

WSWS correspondence on the human genome project

27 July 2000

The World Socialist Web Site received the following letter about the article “Human Genome Project: First scientific milestone of the twenty-first century” [] published July 11. A reply by Chris Talbot follows.

Human Genome Project: First scientific milestone of the twenty-first century

By Chris Talbot, 11 July 2000

The mapping of the human genome is a fundamental milestone in the development of science. The “letters” of this genetic code—3.1 billion DNA base pairs, equivalent to 200 telephone directories each of 500 pages—have now been listed in draft form. There are still some gaps and the human genome project will not be completely finished for another three years.

New scientific study suggests

Water, flash floods and new possibilities for life on Mars

By Peter Symonds, 24 June 2000

Mars has long held a special fascination for scientists, science fiction writers and laypersons alike. For more than a century there has been speculation concerning the existence of life on the planet. In the late 1870s, the American businessman Percival Lowell interpreted observations of canali or channels on Mars by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiapparelli as a proof of an advanced civilisation.

Shuttle crew repairs International Space Station, but ISS's troubles on earth continue

By Tom Bishop, 7 June 2000

After a 10-day mission, Space Shuttle Atlantis returned to the Kennedy Space Center in the early morning hours of May 29. Atlantis's crew of six Americans and one Russian successfully completed all of the mission objectives to repair the partially-built International Space Station (ISS) and boost its orbit.

New fossil discovery shows earlier human migration out of Africa

By Walter Gilberti, 29 May 2000

A multinational team of paleoanthropologists has published their findings following the unearthing last May of the oldest undisputed human fossil remains outside of Africa. The remains of two individual skulls were discovered at an archaeological site at Dmanisi, Georgia, in the former Soviet Union. These new findings have pushed back the estimated time of the first human migrations out of Africa by several hundred thousand years.

US scientists say fossilized heart indicates dinosaurs may have been warm-blooded

By Walter Gilberti, 24 April 2000

In a remarkable discovery, paleontologists at North Carolina State University (NC State) and the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences have discovered and examined the fossilized heart of a 66 million-year-old dinosaur. Their findings suggest that dinosaurs were probably endothermic (warm-blooded), as opposed to modern reptiles which are exothermic (cold-blooded).

US scientists say fossilized heart indicates dinosaurs may have been warm-blooded

By Walter Gilberti, 24 April 2000

In a remarkable discovery, paleontologists at North Carolina State University and the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences have discovered and examined the fossilized heart of a 66 million-year-old dinosaur. Their findings suggest that dinosaurs were probably endothermic (warm-blooded), as opposed to modern reptiles which are exothermic (cold-blooded).

US scientists say fossilized heart indicates dinosaurs may have been warm-blooded

By Walter Gilberti, 24 April 2000

In a remarkable discovery, paleontologists at North Carolina State University and the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences have discovered and examined the fossilized heart of a 66 million-year-old dinosaur. Their findings suggest that dinosaurs were probably endothermic (warm-blooded), as opposed to modern reptiles which are exothermic (cold-blooded).

Montreal Internet service provider raided by FBI

By Mike Ingram, 18 February 2000

In the wake of a series of attacks blocking access to some of the largest and best known Internet web sites, the US government is seeking to use popular concern over the denial of services to push through new legislation that could affect the democratic rights of millions.

Six new extra-solar planets discovered using new technique

By Tim Joy, 5 January 2000

While space missions such as the Mars Pathfinder mission or the International Space Station capture most public attention, exciting new developments in our understanding of the cosmos are being made from earth-based telescopes. On November 29, the leading team of planet finders announced the discovery of six new extra-solar planets or planets outside our solar system. The findings increase the number of such planets by 25 percent and bring the total number to 28.

Report cites continued global warming trend in 1999

By Joseph Tanniru, 31 December 1999

The warming trend continued in the year 1999, according to a preliminary report issued by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) earlier this month. For combined land and ocean surfaces, the average temperature for the year is expected to rank as the fifth warmest since measures began in 1880.

Surveys show significant growth in British Internet use

By Mike Ingram, 29 December 1999

Several recent surveys indicate a significant growth of Internet access in Britain in the last 12 months. According to a Guardian/ICM poll published Monday December 20, more than one in three British adults now have access to the Internet either at home or at work.

A scientific milestone

Scientists unravel genetic code for human chromosome 22

By Frank Gaglioti, 20 December 1999

The publication of the complete genetic code of the human chromosome 22 in the December 2 issue of the scientific journal Nature is an important scientific achievement, which has enormous potential for medical science and the study of human developmental biology and evolution. It is the first human chromosome to be mapped by the Human Genome Project and involved the collaborative efforts of over 200 scientists from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, Canada and Sweden.

More on Freudianism and Marxism

A reader responds to an exchange of letters between WSWS contributors Alan Whyte and Frank Brenner

10 December 1999

To Frank Brenner and Alan Whyte,

A WSWS contributor responds to Intrepid Thought: psychoanalysis in the Soviet Union and Frank Brenner replies

An exchange of letters on Freudianism and Marxism

A WSWS contributor responds to Intrepid Thought: psychoanalysis in the Soviet Union and Frank Brenner replies

30 November 1999

We are publishing the following exchange of letters on Freudianism and Marxism for the information of our readers. The first letter is the response of a WSWS contributing writer, Allen Whyte, to Intrepid Thought: psychoanalysis in the Soviet Union (written by Frank Brenner and published by the World Socialist Web Site in two parts, 11 and 12 June 1999); the second is Brenner's reply.

Global warming and capitalism

The Heat is On by Ross Gelbspan

By Joseph Tanniru, 25 October 1999

The WSWS received the following review from a reader of The Heat is On by Ross Gelbspan (Perseus Books, Reading, Massachusetts. First paperback edition, 1998).

Social inequality and the World Wide Web

By Michael Conachy, 17 August 1999

Those who are "on line" know that the Internet is a tool with astonishing potential. With the click of a mouse, anyone anywhere in the globe can access a vast amount of knowledge. For the cost of a local telephone call, a user can interact, converse, exchange ideas and information with people thousands of kilometres away instantaneously.

Internet produces conflict between commerce and censorship

By Mike Ingram, 16 August 1999

A 96-page report was issued in June by Human Rights Watch (HRW) entitled The Internet in the Mideast and North Africa: Free Expression and Censorship. The HRW report stated:

White House plan for FBI Internet spying

By Martin McLaughlin, 10 August 1999

A vast new computer monitoring system, controlled by the FBI, would be established under a plan being discussed with the Clinton administration, it was reported last week. According to a draft document obtained by a civil liberties group opposed to the plan, and leaked to the New York Times, the FBI would be given sweeping new powers to spy on all computer-related activities by federal government employees.

The Moon landings in historical perspective

By Martin McLaughlin, 20 July 1999

Thirty years ago--at 4:17 p.m., American Eastern Daylight Time, July 20, 1969--Neil Armstrong and Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin became the first men to land on the Moon. The astronauts of Apollo XI were followed by ten more, in the series of six Apollo missions that made successful landings on the Moon.

New techniques to boost the Internet's capacities

By Luciano Fernandez, 16 July 1999

The rapidly increasing demands being placed on international communications networks are fueling some remarkable technical developments in the field of fibre optics.

Huge pollution cloud discovered over Indian Ocean

By Perla Astudillo, 30 June 1999

A recent scientific investigation has identified a huge cloud of atmospheric pollution covering some 10 million square kilometres of the Indian Ocean—an area approximately the size of the United States. The unusual haze was discovered as part of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), which is investigating how pollutants are carried through the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean.

Censorship in the Information Age

How the British government failed to suppress list of MI6 agents

By Mike Ingram, 18 May 1999

The speed with which a list of purported MI6 agents spread across the Internet last week confirmed the worst fears of the powers-that-be regarding the development of the Internet as a medium of mass communication.

A postmodernist attack on science

The End of Science, Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age by John Horgan, Little Brown and Company, 1996

By Chris Talbot, 18 May 1999

John Horgan is a science journalist who writes for Scientific American. His book was originally published in 1996, updated in 1997 and recently brought out as a paperback. It is a collection of interviews with dozens of leading scientists, to which Horgan has added also his own reflections and opinions on the state of modern science. Whilst many of the interviews are interesting in their own right, the book's main significance is Horgan's attack on science from a postmodernist standpoint. It is symptomatic of an anti-science trend which has emerged in the last decade or so.

New fossil find provides important clues to man's prehistory

By Frank Gaglioti, 5 May 1999

The April 23 issue of the Science magazine announced the discovery of the fossilised remains of a new species of hominid [human ancestor], which provides important clues into the early history of human beings. The find was made by a multinational team of scientists headed by Ethiopian anthropologist Dr. Berhane Asfaw.

First extra-solar planetary system discovered

By Chris Talbot, 22 April 1999

The first discovery of a planetary system around a star similar to our sun was announced on April 15. Three planets the size of Jupiter are now known to be circling around the star Upsilon Andromedae, which lies in the Milky Way galaxy. Because of the unusual size and orbits of the planets, one of the researchers involved, Debra Fischer of San Francisco State University (SFSU), said, "It implies that planets can form more easily than we ever imagined, and that our Milky Way is teeming with planetary systems."

UK Internet libel case could set dangerous precedent

By Mike Ingram, 16 April 1999

Demon Internet, one of the oldest UK Internet Service Providers (ISP), is currently fighting a legal battle against a libel case brought by scientist Laurence Godfrey. Its origins lie in a previous action brought by Godfrey against Michael Dolenga, a Canadian citizen who is reported to have posted libelous messages in a Usenet discussion group. Godfrey claimed to have asked Demon to remove this and another offending material posted in groups hosted by Demon. He claims the present action stems from the ISP's refusal to do so.

New findings present theoretical challenge

Universe expanding faster than expected

By Peter Symonds, 17 March 1999

"There are more things in heaven and earth Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy." Hamlet, Act 1, Scene V

Privacy rights threatened by Intel's new computer chip

By James Brookfield, 5 March 1999

Electronic privacy advocates have filed a complaint with the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and launched a boycott campaign against Intel over the company's introduction of a new computer chip that threatens to compromise the privacy and democratic rights of computer users.